Strategies in Trauma and Limb Reconstruction

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2014 | November | Volume 9 | Issue 3

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Original Article

Alec Cikes, Étienne Trudeau-Rivest, Fanny Canet, Jonah Hébert-Davies, Dominique M. Rouleau

Repositioning of the humeral tuberosities can be guided by pectoralis major insertion

[Year:2014] [Month:November] [Volume:9] [Number:3] [Pages:5] [Pages No:127 - 131]

Keywords: Shoulder, Pectoralis major, Bicipital groove, MRI, Tuberosity, Proximal humerus fracture

   DOI: 10.1007/s11751-014-0205-z  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


In complex proximal humerus fractures, positioning of the tuberosities can be a challenge. This study demonstrates the constant angle between the pectoralis major (PM) and the medial lip of the bicipital groove (BG) on the horizontal axial plane. This angle can be used to determine the rotation, as well as the positioning of the tuberosities, when planning a hemiarthroplasty or a reconstruction. Thirty-one shoulder MRIs were reviewed by three independent observers. The measurements were taken by superposing the axial cut of the proximal humerus, at the level of the distal bicipital groove, and the cut at the top of the PM insertion. By aligning the centers of rotation, we could determine the arcs of rotation between the insertion of the PM and the lips of the medial and lateral bicipital groove (MBG and LBG). Both angles were compared in terms of reliability, reproducibility, and precision. The mean PM–MBG angle was 3.7° [standard deviation (SD) 14.7°] and 27.4° (SD 14.4°) for the PM–LBG angle. We obtained good and very good intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) results for inter- (0.675) and intra-observer (0.793) reliabilities on the medial angle, plus excellent results for the lateral angle (inter-observers 0.962 and intra-observer 0.895). This study demonstrates that the repositioning of humeral tuberosities can be guided by pectoralis major insertion. This will help achieve proper positioning of the metaphysis in relation to the diaphysis during surgery for complex proximal humerus fractures.


Original Article

Mir G. R. Wali, Asif Nazir, Irfan A. Latoo, Nawaz A. Bhat, Omar Khurshid Baba, Sudesh Sharma

Internal fixation of shaft humerus fractures by dynamic compression plate or interlocking intramedullary nail: a prospective, randomised study

[Year:2014] [Month:November] [Volume:9] [Number:3] [Pages:8] [Pages No:133 - 140]

Keywords: Shaft humerus, Fracture, Intramedullary nailing, Plating

   DOI: 10.1007/s11751-014-0204-0  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Compare the results of internal fixation of shaft of humerus fractures using dynamic compression plating (DCP) or antegrade interlocking intramedullary nail (IMN). Fifty patients with diaphyseal fracture of the shaft of the humerus and fulfilling the inclusion criterion were randomly assigned to one of the two groups. Twenty-five patients were managed with closed antegrade interlocking intramedullary nail, and 25 underwent open reduction and internal fixation using dynamic compression plating. The mean age of patients with IMN fixation was 37.28 years (SD 12.26) and 37.72 years (SD 12.70) for those who underwent plating. Road traffic accident was the most common mode of injury in both groups. There was a statistically significant difference between the two groups with respect to duration of hospital stay, operative time and blood loss. There was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of union or complications. The functional assessment at the end of 1 year between the two groups did not show any significant difference in outcome. Antegrade interlocking IMN and DCP fixation are comparable when managing diaphyseal shaft of humerus fractures with respect to union rates and complications. Although shoulder related complications are more in the IMN group, however, it is associated with shorter hospital stay, lesser operative time and less blood loss. This makes interlocking IMN an effective option in managing these fractures.


Original Article

Olga D. Savvidou, Michail Beltsios, V. I. Sakellariou, Andreas F. Mavrogenis, Michael Christodoulou, Panayiotis J. Papagelopoulos

Use of external fixation for perilunate dislocations and fracture dislocations

[Year:2014] [Month:November] [Volume:9] [Number:3] [Pages:8] [Pages No:141 - 148]

Keywords: Carpal, Dislocation, Minimal, External fixation, Ligamentotaxis

   DOI: 10.1007/s11751-014-0201-3  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


The purpose of this study was to review clinical and radiographic outcomes of perilunate dislocations and fracture dislocations treated with external fixation and K-wire fixation. Twenty patients (18 males and two females) with a mean age of 38 years (range 18–59) who had an acute dorsal perilunate dislocation or fracture dislocation were treated with the use of wrist external fixator and K-wires. The injuries included 12 perilunate dislocations, seven trans-scaphoid perilunate fracture dislocations, and one trans-styloid perilunate fracture dislocation. The median time from trauma to operation was 8 h (2–12 h). Indirect reduction via ligamentotaxis was achieved in all perilunate dislocation, and provisional K-wire fixation was added. In five of seven trans-scaphoid perilunate fracture dislocations, indirect reduction was achieved; whereas in the other two as well as in the case of trans-styloid perilunate fracture dislocation, open reduction was required. External fixator was supplemented with K-wires for stabilization of the fractures and the intercarpal intervals. The interosseous and capsular ligaments were not repaired, even after open reduction of fracture dislocations. The mean follow-up was 39 months (range 18–68 months). Range of motion and grip strength were measured. Cooney's scoring system was used for the assessment of clinical function. Radiographic evaluation included time to scaphoid union, measurement of radiographic parameters (scapholunate gap, scapholunate angle, lunotriquetral gap, and carpal height ratio) and any development of arthritis. The flexion-extension motion arc and grip strength of the injured wrist averaged 80 and 88%, respectively, of the corresponding values for the contralateral wrists. According to Cooney's clinical scoring system, overall functional outcomes were rated as excellent in four patients, good in eight, fair in six, and poor in two. Eighteen patients returned to their former occupations. Two patients with a trans-scaphoid perilunate injury developed nonunion of the scaphoid; one of them required scaphoid excision and midcarpal fusion. Two patients had radiographic evidence of arthritis. The use of external fixation and provisional K-wire fixation for the treatment of acute perilunate dislocations is associated with satisfactory midterm functional and radiographic outcomes. This minimally invasive treatment option is simple, reliable, and minimally invasive method that provides proper restoration and stable fixation of carpal alignment.


Original Article

Mahmoud A. El-Rosasy, Mostafa A. Ayoub

Midterm results of Ilizarov hip reconstruction for late sequelae of childhood septic arthritis

[Year:2014] [Month:November] [Volume:9] [Number:3] [Pages:7] [Pages No:149 - 155]

Keywords: Hip joint, Septic arthritis, Ilizarov, Pelvic support osteotomy

   DOI: 10.1007/s11751-014-0202-2  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


The management of hip instability as a consequence of septic arthritis in childhood is difficult. Ilizarov hip reconstruction is a double-level femoral osteotomy with the objective of eliminating hip instability, through a proximal valgus–extension–derotation osteotomy and a distal varization–lengthening osteotomy for mechanical axis correction and equalization limb length. Ilizarov hip reconstruction was performed for 16 adult patients with complaints of hip pain, leg-length discrepancy, limping, reduced activity and limited abduction of the hip as a result of childhood septic arthritis. Their ages ranged from 19 to 32 years (mean 23.2 ± 4.2). Ilizarov external fixator was used in all cases. At the time of last follow-up that ranged from 60 to 132 months (mean 85.6 ± 23.5), the Harris hip score (HHS) showed excellent functional outcome in two cases (12.50 %), good in 13 cases (81.25 %) and fair in one case (6.25 %). There was no poor functional outcome in any case. Preoperatively, the mean HHS was 56.18 points, and at the time of last follow-up, it improved to a mean of 84.62 points. Pain subsided in all patients, the Trendelenburg sign became negative in all but three (19 %) patients, no patient had limb-length discrepancy, and the alignment of the extremity was reestablished in all cases. No additional operations were required. Ilizarov hip reconstruction is a valuable and durable solution for the late sequelae of childhood septic arthritis of the hip presenting in adult patients.


Original Article

Gemma Humm, Saqib Noor, Philippa Bridgeman, Michael David, Deepa Bose

Adjuvant treatment of chronic osteomyelitis of the tibia following exogenous trauma using OSTEOSET®-T: a review of 21 patients in a regional trauma centre

[Year:2014] [Month:November] [Volume:9] [Number:3] [Pages:5] [Pages No:157 - 161]

Keywords: Osteomyelitis, Tibia, Trauma, Osteoset, Antibiotic

   DOI: 10.1007/s11751-014-0206-y  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Surgical debridement and prolonged systemic antibiotic therapy are an established management strategy for infection after tibial fractures. Local antibiotic delivery via cement beads has shown improved outcome but requires further surgery for extraction of beads. OSTEOSET®-T is a resorbable bone void filler composed of calcium sulphate and 4 % tobramycin that is packed easily into bone defects. This is a review of the outcomes of 21 patients treated with OSTEOSET®-T for osteomyelitis of the tibia. This is a retrospective case note and clinical review. In all cases, the strategy was debridement, with removal of any implants, with excision back to bleeding bone. OSTEOSET®-T pellets were packed into any contained defects or the intra-medullary canal with further bony stabilisation (n = 9) and soft tissue reconstruction (n = 7) undertaken as required. Intravenous vancomycin and meropenem were administered after sampling with substitution to targeted antibiotic therapy for between 6 weeks and 6 months. The average follow-up was 15 months. Union rate after tibial reconstruction was 100 %. Wound complications were encountered in 52 %: a wound discharge in the early post-operative period was noted in seven patients (33 %) independent of site of pellet placement. In the 14 cases without a wound leak, five developed wound complications (p = 0.06, Fisher's exact test) either from delayed wound-healing or pin-site infections. One patient developed a transient acute kidney injury and one refractory osteomyelitis. OSTEOSET®-T is an effective adjunct in the treatment of chronic tibial osteomyelitis following trauma based on the low incidence of relapse of infection within the period of follow-up in this study, but significant wound complications and one transient nephrotoxic event were also recorded.


Original Article

Randal Rudge Ramos, Carlos Daniel Candido de Castro Filho, Roger Rudge Ramos, Cíntia Kelly Bittar, Mario Sérgio Paulilo de Cillo, Carlos Augusto de Mattos, José Luís Amim Zabeu, Antenor Rafael Mazzuia

Surgical treatment of intra-articular calcaneal fractures: description of a technique using an adjustable uniplanar external fixator

[Year:2014] [Month:November] [Volume:9] [Number:3] [Pages:4] [Pages No:163 - 166]

Keywords: Calcaneus, Os calcis, External fixator, Intra-articular fractures

   DOI: 10.1007/s11751-014-0207-x  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Several surgical techniques are available for the treatment of intra-articular calcaneal fractures. The use of a uniplanar external fixator is an option for the treatment of fractures classified as Sanders types 2 and 3. Satisfactory reduction and stabilisation of the fracture are achieved by means of mini-incisions and fixator adjustment. The advantages of this technique include less soft-tissue damage, avoidance of internal implants and early weight-bearing with the potential to improve postoperative recovery.


Original Article

Andreas Leonidou, Zoltan Kiraly, Hristifor Gality, Shane Apperley, Sean Vanstone, David A. Woods

The effect of the timing of antibiotics and surgical treatment on infection rates in open long-bone fractures: a 6-year prospective study after a change in policy

[Year:2014] [Month:November] [Volume:9] [Number:3] [Pages:5] [Pages No:167 - 171]

Keywords: Open long-bone fracture, Time to theatre, Grade of surgeon, Infection rate

   DOI: 10.1007/s11751-014-0208-9  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Our current protocol in treating open long-bone fractures includes early administration of intravenous antibiotics and surgery on a scheduled trauma list. This represents a change from a previous protocol where treatment as soon as possible after injury was carried out. This review reports the infection rates in the period 6 years after the start of this protocol. Two hundred and twenty open long-bone fractures were reviewed. Data collected included time of administration of antibiotics, time to theatre and seniority of surgeon involved. The patients were followed up until clinical or radiological union occurred or until a secondary procedure for non-union or infection was performed. Clinical, radiological and haematological signs of infection were documented. If present, infection was classified as deep or superficial. Surgical debridement was performed within 6 h of injury in 45 % of cases and after 6 h in 55 % of cases. Overall infection rates were 11 and 15.7 %, respectively (p = 0.49). The overall deep infection rate was 4.3 %. There was also no statistically significant difference in the subgroups of deep (p = 0.46) and superficial (p = 0.78) infection. Intravenous antibiotics were administered within 3 h of injury in 80 % of cases and after 3 h in 20 % of cases. The infection rates were 14 and 12.5 %, respectively (p = 1.0). There was no statistically significant difference in the subgroups of deep (p = 0.62) and superficial (p = 0.73) infection. Further statistical analysis did not reveal a significant difference in infection rates for any combination of timing of antibiotics and surgical debridement. Infection rates where the most senior surgeon present was a consultant were 9.5 % as opposed to 16 % with the consultant not present, but this trend was not statistically significant. These results suggest that the change in policy may have contributed to an improvement of the deep infection rate to 4.3 % from the previous figure of 8.5 % although this decrease is not statistically significant. Surgeons may have had concerns that delaying theatre may lead to an increased infection rate, but these results do not substantiate this concern.



Cem Copuroglu, Levent Tan, Elif Copuroglu, Mert Ciftdemir, Mert Ozcan

Pseudo-arthrosis of the spine of the scapula: a case report with a delayed diagnosis

[Year:2014] [Month:November] [Volume:9] [Number:3] [Pages:5] [Pages No:173 - 177]

Keywords: Pseudo-arthrosis, Scapula, Late diagnosis

   DOI: 10.1007/s11751-014-0210-2  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Scapular spine fractures are rare injuries. The aim of this study was to evaluate a late-diagnosed scapular spine pseudo-arthrotic patient. Because of the surrounding soft tissue mass and overlapping of the scapula with the thoracal bones on a roentgenogram, diagnosis may be missed or delayed for years. We present a case of scapular spine pseudo-arthrosis in a 50-year-old man, who sustained a traffic accident 2 years ago. He was treated as a soft tissue injury of the left shoulder and later as a rotator cuff tear. His scapular spine fracture was diagnosed as pseudo-arthrosis of the scapular spine with a diagnostic delay of 2 years. Isolated scapular spine fractures are rare, usually associated with other injuries and frequently treated non-operatively. Sagging of the acromion as a result of a scapular spine fracture may mimic supraspinatus outlet impingement. If a painful pseudo-arthrosis limits the function of a shoulder, fractured ends should be fixed until union occurs. Although scapular spine fractures are rarely seen, they must take place in the differential diagnosis of impingement syndromes of the shoulder.



J. G. G. Dobbe, J. C. Vroemen, S. D. Strackee, G. J. Streekstra

Patient-specific distal radius locking plate for fixation and accurate 3D positioning in corrective osteotomy

[Year:2014] [Month:November] [Volume:9] [Number:3] [Pages:5] [Pages No:179 - 183]

Keywords: Additive manufacturing, Corrective osteotomy, Computer-assisted surgery, Virtual planning

   DOI: 10.1007/s11751-014-0203-1  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Preoperative three-dimensional planning methods have been described extensively. However, transferring the virtual plan to the patient is often challenging. In this report, we describe the management of a severely malunited distal radius fracture using a patient-specific plate for accurate spatial positioning and fixation. Twenty months postoperatively the patient shows almost painless reconstruction and a nearly normal range of motion.



R. A. Nieuwe Weme, M. P. Somford, T. Schepers

Proximal tibiofibular dislocation: a case report and review of literature

[Year:2014] [Month:November] [Volume:9] [Number:3] [Pages:5] [Pages No:185 - 189]

Keywords: Dislocation, Fibula, Knee, Luxation, Tibia, Tibiofibular joint

   DOI: 10.1007/s11751-014-0209-8  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


An isolated dislocation of the proximal tibiofibular joint is uncommon. The mechanism of this injury is usually sports related. We present a case where initial X-rays did not show the tibiofibular joint dislocation conclusively. It was diagnosed after comparative bilateral AP X-rays of the knees were obtained. A closed reduction was performed and followed by unrestricted mobilization after 1 week of rest. A review of the literature was conducted on PubMed MEDLINE. Thirty cases of isolated acute proximal tibiofibular joint dislocations were identified in a search from 1974. The most common direction of the dislocation was anterolateral, and common causes were sports injury or high velocity accident related. More than 75 % of the cases were successfully treated by closed reduction. Complaints, if any, at the last follow-up (averaging 10 months, range 0–108) were, in the worst cases, pain during sporting activities. We advise comparative knee X-rays if there is a presentation of lateral knee pain after injury and diagnosis is uncertain. Closed reduction is usually successful if a dislocation of the proximal tibiofibular joint is diagnosed. There is no standard for after-care, but early mobilization appears safe if there are no other knee injuries.


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