Citation Information :
Frings J, Freudenthaler F, Krause M, Frosch K. Closed-wedge Patelloplasty for the Treatment of Distal Patellofemoral Maltracking and Instability due to Severe Patellar Dysplasia: Case Report and Surgical Technique. 2020; 15 (3):184-192.
Background: Patellofemoral maltracking is caused by different anatomical factors. Most of them are associated with a proximal maltracking, which alters the patella\'s engagement into the trochlear groove and predisposes the patellofemoral joint for instability. Different surgical techniques have been described to realign patellar tracking, however, most of which address proximal patellar maltracking.
Aim: The aim of this article is to demonstrate the influence of patella-related deformities on patellar tracking and to present a novel surgical technique for the treatment of distal patellar maltracking, caused by a severe patellar dyplasia.
Case Description: We report the case of a 23-year-old patient with a severe patellar dysplasia, presenting a distal patellar maltracking with recurring dislocations in deep flexion. Due to her instability, the patient was immobilised and dependent on the constant use of walking aids. Radiological images showed a concavely shaped patellar, which articulated exclusively with the lateral epicondyle and caused the patella to dislocate laterally, starting at a flexion angle of 60°. An anterior closing-wedge osteotomy was used to reshape and recenter the patella, which was complemented by a medial patellofemoral ligament reconstruction. At the 18-month follow-up, the patient presented pain free and fully remobilised, without the use of walking aids. Patellar tracking was reestablished, with a possible knee flexion until 140°. No redislocation of the patella had occurred.
Conclusion: Distal patellofemoral maltracking, caused by a severe patellar dysplasia, can successfully be treated with an anterior closed-wedge osteotomy of the patella. In combination with a medial patellofemoral ligament reconstruction, patellofemoral stability can be reestablished, to prevent further dislocations.
Clinical Significance: There are multiple factors, which may cause patellar maltracking. A thorough clinical and radiological preoperative analysis is mandatory, in order to clearly identify the underlying pathologies, as these may affect patellar tracking proximally or distally.
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