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VOLUME 11 , ISSUE 3 ( November, 2016 ) > List of Articles

Original Article

Stability at the half pin–frame interface on external fixation constructs

Alexios Dimitrios Iliadis, Parag Kumar Jaiswal, Jay Meswania, Gordon Blunn, David Goodier, Peter Calder

Keywords : Half pin–frame interface, External fixation constructs, Grub screws, Bolt screws, Stability

Citation Information : Iliadis AD, Jaiswal PK, Meswania J, Blunn G, Goodier D, Calder P. Stability at the half pin–frame interface on external fixation constructs. 2016; 11 (3):193-198.

DOI: 10.1007/s11751-016-0269-z

License: CC BY-NC-SA 4.0

Published Online: 30-11-2016

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2016; Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd.


A mechanical study investigating the use of two different methods (grub and bolt screws) to secure external fixation half pins to circular frames. A four part experiment: (1) Grub and bolt screws were used to secure half pins in Taylor Spatial frames. Loosening torques were measured using a calibrated torque wrench. (2) Using universal testing machine (UTM), axial loading was applied to establish thresholds for loosening in grub and bolt screw constructs. (3) We established the application torque to produce failure at the head–driver interface using these two methods. (4) Grub and bolt screw constructs were created controlling torque. Using UTM, axial loading was applied to establish thresholds for loosening. Statistical analysis was conducted using SPSS v20.0.0. (1) Higher torque is employed when bolt rather than grub screws is used to secure half pins on Rancho cubes (p < 0.05). (2) Loading threshold for loosening is higher in bolt screw constructs when the torque applied to secure the constructs is not controlled (p < 0.05). (3) Torque required for failure at the head–driver interface was 5.3 Nm for grub screws and 9.9 Nm for bolts. (4) Loading threshold for loosening is higher in grub screw constructs when the same torque was applied to secure them (p < 0.05). Bolt screws can be employed to secure the half pin–frame interface. They offer good stability and reduce failure at the head–driver interface. Further research is needed to determine the mechanical properties of such constructs in vivo.

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