Strategies in Trauma and Limb Reconstruction

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VOLUME 5 , ISSUE 2 ( August, 2010 ) > List of Articles

Original Article

Bone lengthening osteogenesis, a combination of intramembranous and endochondral ossification: an experimental study in sheep

Francisco Forriol, Luca Denaro, Umile Giuseppe Longo, Hirofumi Taira, Vincenzo Denaro

Keywords : Callotasis, Bone lengthening, Callus, Intramembranous ossification, Endochondral ossification

Citation Information : Forriol F, Denaro L, Longo UG, Taira H, Denaro V. Bone lengthening osteogenesis, a combination of intramembranous and endochondral ossification: an experimental study in sheep. 2010; 5 (2):71-78.

DOI: 10.1007/s11751-010-0083-y

License: CC BY-NC-SA 4.0

Published Online: 31-08-2010

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2010; Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd.


We evaluated the morphological features of the newly formed tissue in an experimental model of tibial callotasis lengthening on 24 lambs, aged from 2 to 3 months at the time of operation. A unilateral external fixator prototype Monotube Triax® (Stryker Howmedica Osteonics, New Jersey) was applied to the left tibia. A percutaneous osteotomy was performed in a minimally traumatic manner using a chisel. Lengthening was started 7 days after surgery and was continued to 30 mm. The 24 animals were randomly divided into three groups of 8 animals each: in Group 1, lengthening took place at a rate of 1 mm/day for 30 days; in Group 2, at a rate of 2 mm/day for 15 days; in Group 3, at a rate of 3 mm/day for 10 days. In each group, 4 animals were killed 2 weeks after end of lengthening, and the other 4 animals at 4 weeks after end of lengthening. To assess bony formation in the distraction area, radiographs were taken every 2 weeks from the day of surgery. To study the process of vascularization, we used Spalteholz\'s technique. After killing, the tibia of each animal was harvested, and sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin, Masson\'s trichrome, and Safranin-O. Immunohistochemistry was performed, using specific antibodies to detect collagens I and II, S100 protein, and fibronectin. A combination of intramembranous and endochondral ossification occurred together at the site of distraction. Our study provides a detailed structural characterization of the newly formed tissue in an experimental model of tibial lengthening in sheep and may be useful for further investigations on callotasis.

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