Citation Information :
Makhdom A, Hamilton AA, Rozbruch SR. The Role of Prophylactic Peroneal Nerve Decompression in Patients with Severe Valgus Deformity at the Time of Primary Total Knee Arthroplasty. 2022; 17 (1):38-43.
Background: Common peroneal nerve (PN) palsy after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is a serious complication. Although many authors suggest delayed or immediate PN decompression after TKA in these patients, little is known about the role of prophylactic peroneal nerve decompression (PPND) at the time of TKA. The aim is to report the results of PPND in high-risk patients at the time of TKA.
Materials and methods: A multi-institutional retrospective study review of nine patients (10 knees) who underwent PPND at the time of TKA was conducted. Patients who had severe valgus deformities (≥15° of femorotibial angle and not fully correctable by examination under anaesthesia) with or without flexion contractures were included. PPND was performed through a separate 3–4-cm incision at the time of TKA. The demographics, preoperative and postoperative anatomical and mechanical alignments, range of motion, operation time, postoperative neurological function and complications were recorded.
Results: All patients had a completely normal motor and sensory neurological function postoperatively and no complications related to PPND were reported. All patients followed the standard physical therapy protocol after TKA without modifications.
The mean preoperative femorotibial angle was 20° (range 15–33°) and the mean postoperative femorotibial angle was 6.3° (range 5–9°) (p = 0.005). The mean preoperative flexion contracture was 9 (range 0–20) and the mean residual contracture was 1.2° (range 2–5°) (p = 0.006).
Conclusion: PPND at the time of TKA is an option to minimise the risk of PN palsy in high-risk patients. This approach can be considered for patients undergoing TKA in selected high-risk patients with a severe valgus deformity.
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